Attaining Sustainable Development Goal for Newborn Survival: Reinforcing Postnatal Interventions


  •   Subhashchandra Daga


Under the sustainable development goals (SDG), the target for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was proposed to be less than 12 per 1000 live births by 2030 and may not meet the SDG 2030 NMR target. It may be prudent to focus on moderately low birth weight babies, 1500-2499 g, to reach the goal. This category of babies constitutes 37% of newborn deaths. They need supervised care for a short period that consists of the provision of warmth and breastfeeding with or without antibiotic therapy, and with or without oxygen administration. Despite knowing that these interventions can reduce neonatal deaths, deficiencies in how to implement these measures may be making all the difference to the expected outcome.

This paper suggests possible ways to enhance the effectiveness of some of the better-known interventions such as the provision of warmth, feeding, resuscitation, oxygen administration, delivery of continuous positive airway support, and antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: Development goal, low-cost newborn care, low birth weight babies, neonatal mortality, sustainable, thermal control in newborn


World Health Organization. Newborns: reducing mortality. [Internet] [cited September 28, 2018]; Available from:

Dandona R, Kumar GA, Henry NJ, Joshua V, Ramji S, Gupta SS, et al. Subnational mapping of under-5 and neonatal mortality trends in India: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2000–17. The Lancet. 2020; 395(10237): 1640-1658.

Belizán JM, McClure EM, Goudar SS, Pasha O, Fabian EF, Patel A, et al. Neonatal death in low- to middle-income countries: a global network study. American Journal of Perinatology. 2012; 29(08): 649-656.

Darmstadt GL, Bhutta ZA, Cousens S, Adam T, Walker N, de Bernis L, Lancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team. Evidence-based, cost-effective interventions: how many newborn babies can we save? Lancet. 2005; 365(9463): 977-88.

Daga S, Daga A, Mhatre S, Ghane V. Enhancing neonatal survival: what can we do today? Journal of Perinatology. 2016; 36(8): 681–684.

Anderson P. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. BMJ. 2004; 328 (7438): 476-477.

Hillier S, Grimmer-Somers K, Merlin T, Middleton P, Salisbury J, Tooher R, et al. FORM: An Australian method for formulating and grading recommendations in evidence-based clinical guidelines. BMC Medical Research Methdology. 2011; 11: 23.

Barbui C, Dua T, van Ommeren M, Yasamy MT, Fleischmann A, Clark N, et al. Challenges in developing evidence-based recommendations using the GRADE approach: the case of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders. PLoS Medicine. 2010; 7: e1000322.

World Health Organization. Essential newborn care course. [Internet] [cited March 21, 2020]; Available from:

Lunze K, Bloom DE, Jamison DT, Hamer DH. The global burden of neonatal hypothermia: a systematic review of a major challenge for newborn survival. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2013; 11: 24.

Conde-Agudelo A, Díaz-Rossello JL. Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low-birth-weight infants. Cochrane Database and System Reviews. 2016; 3: CD002771.

Li S, Guo P, Zou Q, He F, Xu F, Tan L. Efficacy and safety of plastic wrap for prevention of hypothermia after birth and during nicu in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6): e0156960.

Daga S. Reinforcing kangaroo mother care uptake in resource-limited settings. Maternal Health, Neonatology, and Perinatology. 2018; 4: 26.

World Health Organization. Safe Motherhood. Thermal Control of the Newborn: a practicalguide. [Internet], [cited 2019]; Available from:

Sarman I, Tunell R. Providing warmth for preterm babies by a heated, water-filled mattress. Archieves in Disease in Childhood. 1989; 64: 29-33.

Cooke RJ, Embleton ND. Feeding issues in preterm infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 2000; 83: F215–F218.

Daga SR, Dighole RV, Patil RP. Domiciliary management of very low birth weight babies in rural areas of developing countries. World Health Forum. 1996; 17: 289–290.

Daga S, Naktode N, Borade A, Gawali S. Introducing donor milk in a neonatal intensive care unit: a developing country’s perspective. Indian Journal of Pediatrics.2016; 83(12): 1514.

Khalil N. (2017). Impact of implementing an educational program regarding care of nasogastric tube feeding on nurses' knowledge and performance. Journal of Nursing and Health Science. 2017; 6(1): 101-109.

Daga SR, Lunkad NG, Daga AS, Ahuja VK. Orogastric versus nasogastric feeding of newborn babies. Tropical Doctor. 1999; 29(4): 242-243.

Stocks J. Effect of nasogastric tubes on nasal resistance during infancy. Archieves of Disease in Childhood. 1980; 55(1):17–21.

Daga SR, Daga AS, Dighole RV, Patil RP, Dhinde HL. Rural neonatal care: Dahanu Indian Pediatrics 1992; 29(2): 189-93.

Daga AS, Daga SR, Dighole RV, Patil RP, Patil MR. Evaluation of a training programme for traditional birth attendants in newborn care. Indian Pediatrics. 1997; 34(11): 1021–1024.

World Health Organization. Basic Newborn Resuscitation: a practical guide. WHO; Geneva: [Internet] [cited on July 6, 2009]; Available from:

Wall SN, Lee AC, Niermeyer S, English M, Keenan WJ, Carlo W, et al. Neonatal resuscitation in low‐resource settings: what, who, and how to overcome challenges to scale up?. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 2009; 107(Supplement), S47-S64.

Beena DK, MacGuire ER, McClure EM, Goldenberg RL, Jobe AH. Neonatal mortality from respiratory distress syndrome: lessons for low-resource countries. Pediatrics. 2011; 127(6): 1139-1146.

Frey B, Shann F. Oxygen administration in infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 2003; 88: F84–F88.

Daga SR, Verma B, Gosavi DV. Oropharyngeal delivery of oxygen to children. Tropical Doctor. 1999; 29: 98-99.

Wilkinson DA. Methods of oxygen delivery in children: which is best? (editorial) Tropical Doctor. 1999; 29:65.

Daga S, Mhatre S, Borhade A, Khan D. Home-made continuous positive airways pressure device may reduce mortality in neonates with respiratory distress in low-resource setting. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2014; 60: 343-47.

Daga S, Joshi H, Gunjal P, Mhatre S. An innovative air-oxygen blender for continuous positive airway pressure support in resource-poor locations: a feasibility study. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2016; 63(4): 269-273.

Bang AT, Bang RA, Stoll BJ, Baitule SB, Reddy HM, et al. Is home-based diagnosis and treatment of neonatal sepsis feasible and effective? Seven years of intervention in the Gadchiroli field trial (1996 to 2003). Journal of Perinatology. 2005; 25(1): S62-S71.

Darmstadt GL, Batra M, Zaidi AKM. Oral antibiotics in the management of serious neonatal bacterial infections in developing country communities. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2009; 28: S31–S36.


How to Cite
Daga, S. (2021). Attaining Sustainable Development Goal for Newborn Survival: Reinforcing Postnatal Interventions. European Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2(6), 1–4.