Review of Management of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in Low-Resource Centers

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  •   Seke Manase Ephraim Kazuma

  •   Bright Chirengendure

  •   Patrick Musonda

  •   Joseph Musowoya

  •   Royd Ngoma

  •   Boniface Kaela

  •   Simunyama Luyando

  •   Kamwi Mundia

Abstract

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) account for 1% to 3% of gastrointestinal tract tumors and are the most common of the mesenchymal tumors. Carcinogenesis of GIST arises in the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and in the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal tract due to a mutation of the kinase receptor (KIT, also known as CD117) and the platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFA) gene leading to activation of the tyrosine kinase receptor. The exact incidence and prevalence of GIST is not known. Symptoms of GIST are non-specific; they present with GI bleeding due to ulceration (50%), abdominal pain (20% to 50%), dysphagia (esophageal GIST) and GI obstruction (10% to 30%) (7,10). Signs include abdominal mass and fullness. A computerized tomographic (CT) scan is the preferred imaging to evaluate GIST. Diagnosis is confirmed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining a of biopsy sample for medical treatment tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Surgical resection with negative microscopic margins is the gold standard treatment of GIST. TKI are required for tumor reduction to increase chances of respectability (neoadjuvant therapy) or to prevent recurrence and reduce the progression of advanced, resectable GIST.


Keywords: CD117, GIST, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, KIT, TKI

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How to Cite
Kazuma, S. M. E., Chirengendure, B., Musonda, P., Musowoya, J., Ngoma, R., Kaela, B., Luyando, S., & Mundia, K. (2021). Review of Management of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in Low-Resource Centers. European Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2(6), 5–9. https://doi.org/10.24018/clinicmed.2021.2.6.140