Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, A Worldwide Public Health Emergency!

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Selia Chowdhury

  •   Mehedi Hasan Bappy

  •   Samia Chowdhury

  •   Md. Shahraj Chowdhury

  •   Nurjahan Shipa Chowdhury

Abstract

B.1.1.529 is the newest form of SARS- CoV-2. It was initially reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on November 24, 2021, by South Africa. WHO recognized it as a variant of concern on November 26, 2021, and named it "Omicron.” The Omicron variant features an exceptionally large number of mutations, many of which are unique, and a substantial number of which impair the spike protein targeted by most COVID-19 vaccines at the time of its discovery. Despite initial studies showing that the variant caused less serious disease than prior strains, this amount of miscellany has raised worries about its transmissibility, immune system evasion, and vaccine resistance. Omicron is suspected to be much more infectious than previous variants of concerns, spreading around 70 times faster in the bronchi, but it is less able to penetrate deep lung tissue, which may explain why there is a significant reduction in the risk of severe disease requiring hospitalization. Nonetheless, because of the virus's fast rate of transmission and capacity to resist both two-dose vaccination and the immune system, the overall number of patients requiring medical care at present remains a major worry. In this article, the current state of the art for Omicron variant has been discussed to provide a strong framework for future research. The evolution, mutation, epidemiology, infectivity, vaccine breakthrough, and antibody resistance of the Omicron variant are investigated and discussed.


Keywords: COVID-19, epidemiology, mutation, omicron, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine efficacy

References

Chowdhury S, Bappy MH, Chowdhury S, Chowdhury MS, Chowdhury NS. COVID-19 induced cardiovascular complications and recent therapeutic advances. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2021; 3(6): 17–22.

Chowdhury S, Bappy MH, Chowdhury S, Chowdhury MS, Chowdhury NS. Current Review of Delta Variant of SARS-CoV-2. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2021; 3(6): 23-9.

Chowdhury S, Bappy MH. On the Delta Plus Variant of SARS-CoV-2. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2021; 3(6): 52-5.

Mint. Omicron outbreak: List of countries where new Covid-19 variant has been detected. [Internet] 2021. [cited on November 27, 2021] Available from: https://www.livemint.com/news/world/omicron-outbreak-list-of-countries-where-new-covid-19-variant-has-been-detected-11638085299215.html

World Health Organization Classification of Omicron (B.1.1.529): SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern. [Internet] 2021. [cited on November 27, 2021] https://www.who.int/news/item/26-11-2021-classification-of-omicron-(B.1.1.529)-sars-cov-2-variant-of-concern

The New York Times. What we know about the Omicron variant.. [Internet] 2021. [cited on November 27, 2021] https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/26/world/new-covid-variant-omicron.html

Mail & Guardian. New Covid-19 variant is a concern as cases show a sharp increase in Gauteng. [Internet] 2021. [cited on November 27, 2021] https://mg.co.za/coronavirus-essentials/2021-11-25-new-covid-19-variant-is-a-concern-as-cases-show-a-sharp-increase-in-gauteng/

Wikipedia contributors. Timeline of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2022. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timeline_of_the_SARS-CoV-2_Omicron_variant&oldid=1063200523

CDC. COVID data tracker [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020. [cited 2022 Jan 1]. Available from: https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/

Wikipedia contributors. SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2022. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SARS-CoV-2_Omicron_variant&oldid=1063146157

Pulliam JRC, van Schalkwyk C, Govender N, von Gottberg A, Cohen C, Groome MJ, et al. Increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection associated with emergence of the Omicron variant in South Africa [Internet]. bioRxiv. 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 1]. p. 2021.11.11.21266068. Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.11.11.21266068v2

Bloomberg. COVID-19: Toddlers make up 10% of hospital cases in South Africa’s Omicron epicentre. Gulf News [Internet]. 2021. [cited 2022 Jan 1] Available from: https://gulfnews.com/world/africa/covid-19-toddlers-make-up-10-of-hospital-cases-in-south-africas-omicron-epicentre-1.84075071

CDC. Science brief: Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 1]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/science/science-briefs/scientific-brief-omicron-variant.html

Chen J, Wang R, Gilby NB, Wei GW. Omicron (B.1.1.529): Infectivity, vaccine breakthrough, and antibody resistance. ArXiv [Preprint]. 2021.

Outbreak.Info [Internet]. outbreak.info. [cited 2022 Jan 1]. Available from: https://outbreak.info/situation-reports/omicron?loc=ZAF&loc=GBR&loc=USA&selected=Worldwide&overlay=false

Kandeel M, Mohamed M, Abd El-Lateef HM, Venugopala KN, El-Beltagi HS. Omicron variant genome evolution and phylogenetics. Journal of Medical Virology. 2021.

Wendong L, Zhengli S, Meng Y, Wuze R, Craig S, Jonathan EH, et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science. 2005; 310(5748): 676–679.

Walls AC, Park Y-J, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D. Structure, function, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Cell. 2020.

Wang Chunyan, Li Wentao, Drabek Dubravka, Okba Nisreen MA, van Haperen Rien, Osterhaus Albert DME, van Kuppeveld Frank JM, Haagmans Bart L, Grosveld Frank, and Bosch Berend-Jan. A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nature communications, 11(1):1–6, 2020.

Li C, Tian X, Jia X, Wan J, Lu L, Jiang S, et al. The impact of receptor-binding domain natural mutations on antibody recognition of SARS-CoV-2. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy. 2021; 6(1): 1–3.

Chen J, Wang R, Gilby NB, Wei GW. Omicron (B.1.1.529): Infectivity, vaccine breakthrough, and antibody resistance. ArXiv [Preprint]. 2021.

Li Z, Qianqian L, Ziteng L, Tao L, Shuo L, Qianqian C, et al. The significant immune escape of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 Variant Omicron. Emerging Microbes & Infections. 2021; 1-11.

Collie S, Champion J, Moultrie H, Bekker L-G, Gray G. Effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine against omicron variant in South Africa. New Englands Journal of Medicine. 2021.

Ai J, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Lin K, Zhang Y, Wu J, et al. Omicron variant showed lower neutralizing sensitivity than other SARS-CoV-2 variants to immune sera elicited by vaccines after boost. Emerging Microbes Infections. 2021; 1–24.

Garcia-Beltran WF, St Denis KJ, Hoelzemer A, Lam EC, Nitido AD, Sheehan ML, et al. mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine boosters induce neutralizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. medRxiv [Internet]. 2021. Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.14.21267755v1.full.pdf

Doria-Rose NA, Shen X, Schmidt SD, O’Dell S, McDanal C, Feng W, et al. Booster of mRNA-1273 strengthens SARS-CoV-2 Omicron neutralization [Internet]. bioRxiv. 2021. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.15.21267805

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Chowdhury, S., Bappy, M. H., Chowdhury, S., Chowdhury, M. S., & Chowdhury, N. S. (2022). Omicron Variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, A Worldwide Public Health Emergency!. European Journal of Clinical Medicine, 3(1), 5–9. https://doi.org/10.24018/clinicmed.2022.3.1.159

Most read articles by the same author(s)