Clinical and Neuroimaging Changes of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis – Experience 30 Cases in Tertiary Care Center in Bangladesh

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  •   Gopen Kumar Kundu

  •   Mohammad Monir Hossain

Abstract

Background: Subacute sclersing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a very rare progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of the control nervous system of childhood and early adolescence. It is a slow virus disease caused by persistent defective measles virus infection of the brain


Objective: To see the clinical andneuro-imaging findings in children with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.


Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, a tertiary care premier Postgraduate Medical Institution in Bangladesh. Thirty (30) Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) children were evaluated at paediatric neurology ward during the period January 2010 to December 2017. Diagnosis was based on typical clinical characteristic features, the presence of periodic discharges on EEG, demonstration of raised antibody titer against measles in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid Detected by ELISA in all patients.


Results: Total number of studied children were 30. Mean age was 10.2±3.1 year and Male female ratio was 5:1. Most of the patient arrived from poor socio-economic (83.33%) background of rural area (66.67%) of Bangladesh. Among them 46.67% had history of measles infection during early childhood. Progressive deterioration of school performance (50%), gait disturbance (70%), myoclonus (83%) dysarthria (43%) and Ocular manifestations like optic atrophy & papilledema (83.33%) were the main presenting feature of our studied children. All of the patients (100%) showed positive measles specific antibody IgG in CSF and On electroencephalographic findings showed periodic burst suppression in 90.90% cases. Most of the children (56.6%) were in stage II category and other 3.3%, 33.3%,6.6%, were stage I, stage III, stage IV category respectively. Neuroimaging study showed abnormalities in 45.83% cases included periventricular white matter hyper intense signal changes, cortical atrophy and ischaemic change.


Conclusion: In our study most of the SSPE patient were in stage II.About half of the patient had history of measles infection during early childhood. Neuroimaging abnormalities found in about half of the cases and majority cases were in stage II. Common neuroimaging abnormalities were periventricular white matter hyper intense signal changes and cortical atrophy.


Keywords: subacute sclersing panencephalitis (SSPE), measles, myoclonic jerk

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How to Cite
Kundu, G. K., & Hossain, M. M. (2021). Clinical and Neuroimaging Changes of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis – Experience 30 Cases in Tertiary Care Center in Bangladesh. European Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2(3), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.24018/clinicmed.2021.2.3.25