Factors Associated with the Emotional Intelligence among Youth University Students


  •   Ibtissam M Sabbah

  •   Hala Sabbah

  •   Rania Khamis

  •   Reve Berbari

  •   Sanaa Sabbah

  •   Sally Badran

  •   Nabil Droubi


Nowadays, emotional intelligence (EI) is an emerging topic for psychological, educational, and management researchers and consultants. EI is the ability to manage emotions and interact effectively with others. The purpose of our study is to assess the level of EI of young university students and its associated factors; and   to develop a valid and reliable instrument of EI in Lebanon. During 2018, a cross-sectional study, which enrolled 705 university students chosen randomly in seven faculties was conducted. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS).  The attitudes related to media and technology usage assessed by using the last four sub-factors of the Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale. The translation and cultural adaptation of the WLEIS followed a standardized protocol. After that, the psychometric properties of the scale (i.e., feasibility, reliability, and validity) were evaluated. A total of 705 undergraduates filled out the questionnaire, of whom 74% were females, aged   from 17 to 35 (mean=20.42±2.41) years.  The rotated principal axis factor analysis produced four-factors, explaining 64.60% of the variance, corresponding to the hypothesized Self-Emotions Appraisal (SEA), Others-Emotions Appraisal (OEA), Use of Emotion (UOE), and Regulation of Emotion (ROE) scales of WLEIS. The internal consistency of the WLEIS scale was high for all subscales (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.70).  The mean OEA score was significantly higher in females as compared to males (p=0.03). The students who study in public university and have physical activities had higher scores of the ROE (p<0.001); whereas the drinkers of alcohol (p=0.04) and smokers had lower scores (p=0.001). The relationship between SEA, OEA, UOE scores and academic performance was significant (p<0.001). The UOE and ROE were negatively and significantly correlated with the Dependence on Technology (r=-0.15; p<0.001). This study supports the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the WLEIS Arabic version as a screening tool of EI among young university students. The individuals working with students in the context of improving academic skills may want to routinely assess EI of their students in order to improve education, student development, personal well-being, and mental ability.

Keywords: Academic achievement, Emotional Intelligence, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale (MUTAS), Young University Students


C.-S. Wong, P.-M. Wong and K. S. Law, "Evidence of the practical utility of Wong’s emotional intelligence scale in Hong Kong and mainland China," Asia Pacific J Manage, vol. 24, p. 43–60, 2007.

E. G. Ezekiel J. Emanuel, "Does Medicine Overemphasize IQ?," JAMA, 29 january 2018.

K. E. Ghoudani, M. Pulido-Martos and E. Lopez-Zafra, "Measuring emotional intelligence in Moroccan Arabic: the Wongand Law Emotional Intelligence Scale / Medidas de la inteligencia emocional en árabe marroquí: la escala de inteligencia emocional de Wong y Law," Revista de Psicología Social / International Journal of Social Psychology, 2017, pp. 1-21, 2017.

N. G. Alghamdi, M. Aslam and K. Khan, "Personality Traits as Predictor of Emotional Intelligence among the University Teachers as Advisors," Hindawi Education Research International, vol. 2017, p. 6 pages, 2017.

C.-S. Wonga and K. S. Law, "The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude:An exploratory study," The Leadership Quarterly , vol. 13, pp. 243-247, 2002.

P. v. d. Merwe, S. Coetzee and M. d. Beer, "Measuring emotional intelligence (EQ): a construct comparison between the Bar-On EQ-i and the OPQ32i EI report," Southern African Business Review 2005 9(2): 34±50, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 34-50, 2005.

K. S. Law, C.-S. Wong and L. J. Song, "The Construct and Criterion Validity of Emotional Intelligence and Its Potential Utility for Management Studies," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 89, no. 3, p. 483–496, 2004.

J. M. A. Landa and E. López-Zafra, "The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Nursing:An Overview," Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 50-58, 2010.

S. Laborde, E. Mosley, S. Ackermann, A. Mrsic and F. Dosseville, "Emotional Intelligence in Sports and Physical Activity: An Intervention Focus," in Emotional Intelligence in Education. Integrating Research with Practice, Switzerland, The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality, 2019, pp. 289-320.

N. Naeem and A. Muijtjens, "Validity and reliability of bilingual EnglishArabic version of Schutte self report emotional intelligence scale in an undergraduate Arab medical student sample," Medical Teache, vol. 37:sup1, pp. S20-S26, 2015.

B. Mallery, "What is Emotional Intelligence? 2 Theories and Measures," 2017. [Online]. Available: http://positivepsychology.org.uk/emotional-intelligence-mayer-salovey-th. [Accessed 13 11 2018].

M. S. mieja, J. Orzechowski and M. S. Stolarski, "TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence," PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 7, p. e103484., 2014.

W. S. W. Sulaiman and M. Z. M. Noor, "International Conference on Social Sciences & Humanities (ICOSH-UKM2012)Theme: Knowledge for Social Transformation & Development in the 21st Century.EXAMINING THE PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE WONG AND LAW EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCES SCALE (WLEIS)," Journal of Special Sciences and Humanities, no. Special Issue 2, pp. 81-90, 2015.

D. Shouhed, C. Beni, N. Manguso, W. W. IsHak and B. L. Gewertz., "Association of Emotional Intelligence With Malpractice Claims (Abstract)," JAMA Surg., vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 250-256, 2019.

I. Sabbah, H. Sabbah, R. Khamis, S. Sabbah and N. Droubi, "Health related quality of life of university students in Lebanon: Lifestyles behaviors and socio-demographic predictors," Health, vol. 5, no. 7A4, pp. 1-12, 2013.

J. Montgomery, A. McCrimmon, E. Climie and M. Ward, "Emotional Intelligence in Atypical Populations: Research and School-Based Interventions," in Emotional Intelligence in Education. Integrating Research with Practice, Switzerland, The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality, 2019, pp. 243-288.

H. Sabbah, R. Berbari, R. Khamis, D. Zorkot, S. Sabbah, N. Droubi and I. Sabbah, "The Social Media and Technology Addiction and Its Associated Factors among University Students in Lebanon Using the Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale (MTUAS)," Journal of Computer and Communications, 2019, 7,, vol. 7, pp. 88-106, 2019.

R. Gilar-Corbí, T. Pozo-Rico, B. Sánchez and J. L. Castejón, "Can Emotional Competence Be Taught in Higher Education? A Randomized Experimental Study of an Emotional Intelligence Training Program Using a Multimethodological Approach," Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 9, 2018.

L. Yekefallah, L. Dehghankar, A. Razaghpoor, E. Hasannia, N. Hosseini and M. Mafi, "The prevalence and predictive factors of internet addiction and its relationship with emotional intelligence among medical students," Social Health and Behavior , 2019.

W. AbdelKader, "The relationship between media use, emotional intelligence and adaptation processing of youth in Nursing Faculty," IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS) , vol. 6, no. 5, p. 63–77, 2017.

A. G. Crane, R. Taylor, M. Cormier, J. Lean, K.V.Keefer and J. D. A. Parker, "Developing Emotional Intelligence in At-Risk Youth (Abstract)," Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 101:473, 2016.

Z. K. Özlü, G. AvGar, K. Gökalp, S. E. Apay, Ö. F. Altun and A. YurttaG, "Comparison of the Emotional Intelligence Levels of Students Receiving Education in Different Fields," Education Research International, 2016.

O. Alkhadher, "Developing an Arabic Test for Emotional Intellegence and Assessing its Psychometric Charactrestics and Correlations," Psychological Studies 16(2):, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 259-289, 2006.

O. ELKhadher, "Emotional Intelligence and Psychological Health in A Sample of Kuwaiti College Students," Perceptual and Motors Skills, vol. 104, pp. 923-936, 2007.

A. A. Mohamed, S. E. Khouly and M. Saad, "Reliability and factor structure of a trait emotional intelligence measure in four Arab countries," Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 83-92, 2012.

H. Aouani, M. Slimani, N. L. Bragazzi, S. Hamrouni and M. Elloumi, "A preliminary validation of the Arabic version of the “Profile of Emotional Competence” questionnaire among Tunisian adolescent athletes and nonathletes: insights and implications for sports psychology," Psychology Research and Behavior Management , vol. 12, p. 155–167, 2019.

M. H. Alshehri and A. M. Atoom, "The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and the Level of Literary Appreciation Skills among Arabic Language Teachers for the Secondary Stage in Najran Region," Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies [JEPS], vol. 13, no. 3, 2019.

I. Sabbah, H. Sabbah, R. Khamis, S. Sabbah and N. Droubi., "Health related quality of life of university students in Lebanon: Lifestyles behaviors and socio-demographic predictors," Health, vol. 5, no. 7A4, pp. 1-12, 2013.

M.-J. Sanchez-Ruiz, C. El-Jor, J. A. KharmaJoelle, M. S. Bassil and N. Zeeni, "Personality, emotion-related variables, and media pressure predict eating disorders via disordered eating in Lebanese university students," Eating and weight disorders: EWD 24(5), 2017.

S. Obeid, M. Akel, C. Haddad, K. Fares, H. Sacre, P. Salameh and S. Hallit, "Factors associated with alexithymia among the Lebanese population: results of a cross crosssectional," BMC Psychology, p. 7:80, 2019.

K. E. Hassan and M. E. Sader, "Adapting and Validating the BarOn EQ–i:YV in the Lebanese Context (Abstract)," International Journal of Testing, vol. 5, pp. 301-317, 2005.

F. Kong, "The validity of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Chinese sample: Tests of measurement invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age," Personality and Individual Differences , vol. 116, p. 29–31, 2017.

N. Libbrecht, A. D. Beuckelaer, F. Lievens and T. Rockstuhl, "Measurement Invariance of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores: Does the Measurement Structure Hold across Far Eastern and European Countries?," Applied Psychology, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 223-237., 2014.

K.-M. Ng, C. Wang, C. P. Zalaquett and N. Bodenhorn, "A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International College Students.," Int J Adv Counselling, vol. 30, p. 131–144, 2008.

C.-S. Wong and K. S. Law., "The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study.," The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 13, pp. 243-274, 2002.

I. Sabbah, N. Drouby, S. Sabbah, N. Retel-Rude and M. Mercier, "Quality of life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF 36 Health Survey," Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 1: 30, 2003.

J. E. J. Ware, SF-36 health survey manuel and interpretation guide, Second printing ed., Boston: MA: The Health Institute, New England Center, 1997.

N. JC and B. IH, Psychometric Theory, 3rd ed. ed., New York: McGraw-Hil, 1994.

Y. Xiang, S. Zhao, H. Wang, Q. Wu, F. Kong and L. Mo, "Examining brain structures associated with dispositional envy and the mediation role of emotional intelligence," Scientific Reports , vol. 7:39947, 2017.

M. A. M. Mohzan, N. Hassan and N. A. Halil, "The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Academic Achievement. 6thInternational Conference on University Learning and Teaching (InCULT 2012)," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 90 ( 2013 ) 303 – 312, vol. 90, pp. 303-312, 2013.

I. Sabbah, H. Sabbah, S. Sabbah, H. Akoum, N. Droubi and M. Mercier., "Measurement Properties of the Arabic Lebanon Version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales for Young Child (5 - 7 years), and Child Aged 8 - 12 Years: Quality of Life in Urban and Rural Children in Lebanon," Creative Education,, vol. 3, no. Special Issue,, pp. 959-970, 2012.

E. Fukuda, D. H. Saklofske, K. Tamaoka and H. Lim, "Factor Structure of the Korean Version of Wong and Law's Emotional Intelligence Scale," Assessment, vol. 19: 3, 2012.

J. C. Acosta-Pradoab and R. A. Z. Torresc, "Validation of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale for Chilean managers," Suma Psicológica, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 110-118, 2019.

R. Khamis, H. Sabbah, S. Sabbah, L. Peters, N. Droubi and I. Sabbah5, "Evaluating the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Groningen Frailty Indicator among Lebanese elderly people," Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association, vol. 94:28, 2019.

A. Al-Huwailah, " Quality of Life and Emotional Intelligence in a Sample of Kuwait University Students," Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 180-185, 2017.

S. Khan, "A comparative analysis of emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient among Saudi business students’ toward academic performance," International Journal of Engineering Business Management, vol. 11, pp. 1-10, 2019.


How to Cite
Sabbah, I. M., Sabbah, H., Khamis, R., Berbari, R., Sabbah, S., Badran, S., & Droubi, N. (2020). Factors Associated with the Emotional Intelligence among Youth University Students. European Journal of Clinical Medicine, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.24018/clinicmed.2020.1.1.3

Most read articles by the same author(s)