Hemodialysis Catheter-related Infections: Incidence, Microbiology and Outcome 5 years of Dubai Hospital Experience

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  •   Hussein Yousif Salem

  •   Maseer Ahmed

  •   Kashif Gulzar

  •   Fakhriya Alalawi

  •   Amna Alhadari

Abstract

Background: The central venous catheters (CVC) has recently become a worldwide commonest technique for vascular access, however; prone to infection and associated with other complications more than other vascular access techniques, such as fistula or graft.


Objective: To investigate the incidence, the types of micro-organism, the most sensitive and suitable antibiotics, the outcomes associated with CVC infection in chronic hemodialysis patients treated through tunneled CVC.in a single-center population.


Methods: The records of hemodialysis patients from January 2012 to December 2016 were reviewed. Patients above 14 years of age, on hemodialysis via a permanent tunneled catheter at any time of the mentioned period, were included. The rate of CRBSI (Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections) was calculated as density of incidence and reported per 1000 catheter days. Patient mortality was recorded.


Results: In 5 years, a total of 73 episodes of CRBSI in 49 hemodialysis patients were recorded. 59.2% were male with a mean age of 53.57 years. 40.8% had end-stage kidney disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy. In all, 67.3% episodes grew Gram-positive isolates, among those staphylococci epidermidis (26.4%, n=19) and staphylococci aureus (25%, n=18) were the most common organism, whereas Klebsiella pneumonia (8.3%, n=6), Enterobacter cloacae (8.3%, n=6), pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.5%, n=4) and E.coli (5.5%, n=4) were the most common Gram-negative isolates. A total of 6 isolates were multidrug-resistant, which includes Klebsiella pneumonia, Citrobacter, and E. coli. Only 1 out of 18 staphylococci aureus cases were methicillin-resistant and 21% (n=6) of Gram-negative isolates were Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms. The average hospital stay was 9 days (2-30 days). The hemodialysis catheter was removed for 19 (38.77%) patients and 4 (8.1%) patients expired due to septic shock despite catheter removal and being on appropriate antibiotics.


Conclusion: The mainstay to reduce CRBSI would be ideal to avoid catheters or decrease the duration of catheters. This can be achieved through more aggressive counseling and fast-track protocols for AV Fistulae creation at the pre-dialysis stage.


Keywords: Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections (CRBSIs), Central Venous Catheters (CVC), End-Stage Renal Disease, Hemodialysis

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How to Cite
Yousif Salem, H., Ahmed, M., Gulzar, K., Alalawi, F., & Alhadari, A. (2021). Hemodialysis Catheter-related Infections: Incidence, Microbiology and Outcome 5 years of Dubai Hospital Experience. European Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2(3), 111–115. https://doi.org/10.24018/clinicmed.2021.2.3.97

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